India gives green light to Digital Personal Data Protection Bill

The Union Cabinet’s approval of India’s Digital Personal Data Protection (DPDP) Bill on July 5, 2023, represents a significant step in India’s efforts to safeguard privacy rights. The much-delayed DPDP bill sets forth guidelines for organizations and entities involved in collecting personal data, defining regulations for data storage, processing, and protecting individuals’ rights.

While some comparisons have been made to the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the true impact of the DPDP Bill on Indian enterprises is yet to be determined, awaiting finer details. In the first week of December 2019, the Union Cabinet cleared the bill, and the new bill was introduced in Lok Sabha on 11 December 2019. The new bill, by that time, called Data Protection Bill 2019, brought about some significant changes.

(See: Personal Data Protection Bill: Did The Wait Just Got A Little Longer?)

A historic moment for privacy in India

In the age of digital advancements, adequate data protection is paramount for India’s thriving data economy. The Bill’s implementation must balance flexibility and robust security measures to adapt to the evolving nature of the data economy while safeguarding individuals’ rights. 

The Digital Personal Data Protection Bill, 2022, which received Cabinet approval, retains the contents of the original draft introduced in November 2022, despite concerns raised by privacy experts. Notably, it includes wide-ranging exemptions for the Central government and its agencies, granting them the authority to exempt any instrumentality of the state from adverse consequences by citing reasons such as national security, foreign relations, and public order.

In regards to this, Dr. Pavan Duggal, Advocate, Supreme Court of India, Chairman, International Commission on Cyber Security Law, said “Given the fact that India is seeing a policy vacuum on data protection, privacy, and cyber security, the said event has suddenly unleashed a wave of excitement amongst all digital stakeholders. This is a very welcome step, and the proposed Bill is likely to aid India’s progress ahead as the growing digital economy in the world. As of now, the language of the Draft Bill is not available in the public domain, so it is hard to comment on the same without going through its contents.” 

Comparing India’s Bill with the GDPR

Comparing the Bill with the GDPR, it becomes evident that India’s legislation aims to protect “digital” personal data and give individuals the right to control their data while allowing processing for other lawful purposes. Unlike the GDPR’s classification of personal data into various categories, the Digital Personal Data Protection Bill regulates all personal data without distinct classifications. Furthermore, the Bill leaves the concept of cross-border data flow open-ended, in contrast to the GDPR’s stringent rules for such transfers.

“When one looks at the previous draft, there is no denying that the Indian approach to data protection has been substantially influenced by the General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR). Such a kind new draft of the Digital Personal Data Protection Bill, 2023, is bound to create far more responsible and enabling legal frameworks in India for regulating and protecting personal data. Such a legal regime will help create more awareness about the need to respect the sanctity of personal data and the need for obtaining appropriate consent from the data principals before dealing or handling data by data principals.” – Pavan added. 

Evaluating Bill’s security efficacy

The Bill takes a rigorous approach to reporting data breaches, requiring organizations to report all breaches to data principals, irrespective of their effects. This stands in contrast to the GDPR, which mandates reporting only when a personal data breach is likely to harm the rights and freedoms of data subjects significantly.

The impact of the Digital Personal Data Protection Bill on Indian enterprises is expected to be both positive and negative. On the positive side, the Bill empowers individuals with greater control over their data, fostering trust between individuals and organizations. This increased trust can improve customer loyalty, sales, and new opportunities for data-driven businesses. However, compliance costs may rise for businesses as they invest in new systems and procedures to meet the Bill’s requirements. Additionally, restrictions on data transfers could pose challenges for companies reliant on global data flows.

The implementation of the Bill will play a crucial role in determining its overall impact on Indian enterprises. Factors such as the reactions of businesses and individuals, the effectiveness of enforcement, and the state of the global economy will shape the outcomes. However, given the Bill’s potential to significantly impact the Indian digital economy, businesses must remain aware of its implications.

Next steps in making the bill a law

The next step for the government is to introduce the Bill during the Monsoon Session of the Parliament. With the current government possessing the necessary majority, the Bill is anticipated to pass. Ensuring effective law enforcement will be crucial, and stakeholders should be provided with an interregnum period to prepare for compliance before imposing stringent fines.

While cases like the Cowin data breach highlight the importance of protecting citizens’ right to privacy, the Digital Personal Data Protection Bill 2023 provisions will determine its effectiveness in safeguarding privacy rights. As the composition of the data economy evolves, the Bill must provide a tenacious framework that ensures both flexibility and robust security measures while enabling practical interpretation and cross-referencing with other relevant legislation.

Challenges and opportunities for India’s growing data economy

India’s Digital Personal Data Protection Bill represents a significant step towards protecting privacy rights in the country’s rapidly growing digital landscape. By establishing a comprehensive data governance framework, the Bill aims to strike a balance between individual privacy and the needs of businesses operating in the digital realm. As the Bill progresses through the legislative process, its impact and effectiveness will become more apparent, shaping the future of data protection in India.

Deepak Kumar, Founder Analyst BMNXT, said, “Effective data protection is going to be the pivot of India’s fast-growing data economy. Given that the data economy is fluid and ever-evolving, the data protection framework must be flexible. It needs to be securely robust and infallible. Thus, the act must have a tenacious framework for practical interpretation and cross-referencing with other acts. 


The approval of India’s Digital Personal Data Protection Bill by the Union Cabinet represents a pivotal moment in the country’s commitment to privacy rights. As the Bill moves to the Indian Parliament, it signifies a significant step toward establishing a comprehensive data governance framework.  While drawing inspiration from the GDPR, the Bill aims to protect digital personal data and empower individuals to have greater control over their information.

The Bill’s impact on Indian enterprises is expected to be a mixed bag, with both positive and negative implications. On the one hand, the Bill enhances individuals’ trust by giving them more control over their data, which can foster loyalty and open new opportunities for data-driven businesses. On the other hand, compliance costs and restrictions on data transfers may pose challenges for companies operating in the global market.

Successful implementation and enforcement of the Bill will be crucial for realizing its intended goals. The reactions of businesses and individuals and the effectiveness of enforcement mechanisms will shape the Bill’s overall impact. 

Providing stakeholders with an interregnum period to prepare for compliance is essential for a smooth transition and adequate adherence to the new regulations.

Image Source: Freepik 

Share on

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *